If a person has ceased to breathe, immediately place him on his back, on a firm surface if possible, and press the top of head backwards so as to extend the head. Pull the chin forwards to make a clear airway. If the patient is still not breathing, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation immediately. Time saves lives.


To do this, open your mouth and take a deep breath. Pinch the patientís nostrils with your fingers, and then seal his mouth with your lips (keeping the head held back all the time). Blow into the patientís mouth until the chest rises, then remove your mouth and watch his chest deflate. Repeat this operation as long as is necessary at normal breath rate, but give the first four blows as rapidly as possible.




Direct pressure on as open, clean wound will usually control the bleeding. This can be done by pressure by the fingers or hand, but if readily available use a sterile dressing with as adequate pad, and bondage firmly in position. A tourniquet should never be used.




Send for a doctor at once and do not attempt to move the limb, and try to immobilize the broken limb with any splint/straight object and bind it firmly.




If a limb is affected, immerse the part immediately in cold water to relieve the pain. Then cover the part (including any burned clothing) with a dry sterile dressing or freshly laundered material such as a tea cloth. If burns are severe, treat for shock and get medical aid as quickly as possible. Do not use ointments or oil dressings.




This is usually caused by food, or some foreign body, getting into the wind-pipe and can often be cured by getting the patient to bend over and then thumping with the flat of the hand between the should blades. A small child can be held upside down and thumped. If this does not work tickle the back of the throat with the finger-tips in an attempt to make the patient cough or vomit. If neither method succeeds get medical help at once.




If the patient is still in contact with electrical equipment, and you cannot switch of the electricity off the electricity, do not touch him unless protected by rubber soles or rubber gloves. Apply artificial respiration and treat for burns and shock as necessary.




If someone is thought to have swallowed poison, send for medical help at once, even if no effects have appeared. Have the poison container ready to show the doctor. Corrosive acid or alkaline poison such as creosote, ammonia, caustic soda, strong carbolic and oxalic and other acids will all burn or stain the lips and mouth. Give water at once, but not an emetic (EMETIC : If the poison taken is known to be corrosive, acid or alkaline, or if there is any burning or staining of he mouth and lips, an emetic is dangerous and should not be given. For other poisons give two tablespoonfuls of salt, or a half tablespoonful of mustard, in a half pint of water).


If the poison is known to be an acid such as oxalic, nitric, or sulphuric acid, rinse the mouth with an alkali such as magnesia, chalk and water, whiting and water or even plaster from the ceiling. If the poison is an alkali, such as ammonia or caustic soda, give an acid drink such as vinegar or lemon juice in water. Slow pulse, pallor, sleepiness and, in some cases, pin-point pupils, are symptoms of an overdose of narcotics such as sleeping tablets. Give emetic and try to keep patient awake. For gas poisoning, give the patient fresh air, artificial respiration and warmth and send for doctor.




Treat as burns.




Serious burns or injury always cause shock. The patient is pale, his skin cold and clammy, his breathing quick and irregular and his pulse fast. He should be lying down with head low and hips and legs raised a little. Keep him warm and, if he is conscious, give him a warm sweet drink Ė but no simulates. Keep him quiet and reassure him. Shock can also occur after quite minor accidents.




Lifting the upper eyelid over the lower will often bring the foreign body on to the lower lid from which it can then be removed, or making the eyes water by rubbing the other eye or blowing the nose will sometimes help. If the object is clearly visible the torn and moisturized edge of a piece of soft paper can be used to remove it. Never use tweezers and never rub the injured eye. If the object appears to be embedded in the eyeball leave it for the doctor to remove.